In a recent post on SoPE.net entitled the 7 Sources of Bioinnovation, Dr. Arlen Meyers reminds us of Peter Drucker’s classic book Innovation and Entrepreneurship. In this text, Mr. Drucker delineates these 7 sources: (1)The unexpected failure, success or outside event, (2)The incongruity between what is and what ought to be, (3)Innovation based on process need, (4)Changes in industry or market structure, (5) Demographics, (6)Changes in perception, mood or meaning, (7)New scientific or non-scientific knowledge.
Zenios, Makower and Yock, in their book Biodesign: The Process of Innovating Medical Technologies, break down the innovate process like this: Identify: Stage 1: Needs Finding, Stage 2: Needs Screening; Invent: Stage 3: Concept Generation, Stage 4: Concept Selection; Implement: Stage 5: Development Strategy and Planning, Stage 6: Integration. The innovative source is tapped in Stages 1 and 2 (presumably by from Drucker’s seven sources) and then further developed in stages 3 through 6.
If success of innovation is defined by transforming an idea into a commercially successful product, then a good idea identified through Mr. Drucker’s sources can only be identified as ‘good’ retrospectively, after it has successfully navigated through Zenios et al’s Biodesign process.
Innovation is a pragmatic, learnable, reproducible process. The educational process for teaching Bioentrepeneurship is still being developed. Check this out:
Meyers and Hurley. Bioentrepreneurship Education Programs in the United States. Journal of Commercial Biotechnology. Vol. 14. No. 1. 2-12. January 2008.